We are continuing to publish on our site the fragments from the book AMERICA’S PLANSFOR WORLD HEGEMONY, by Romanian author Calistrat M. Atudorei which was published in English version very recently by printing house ”ePublishers” in Bucharest.
Chapter 5/1. NATO Secret Armies in Europe
US military interventions during the Cold War were not limited only to Asian countries, Latin America, or African countries. Western Europe was also targeted, but here the interventions were much more discrete, through some very special operations. These operations involved not only actions of US’ secret services, but establishing of truly secret armies that were implemented and acted in almost all developed countries of Europe. The clear goal pursued by the US was the firm, from the shadow, control of European countries and their upkeep under US influence.
Although the existence of US-controlled secret armies in Europe is today a well-documented fact, official media avoids making any reference to this subject, despite its huge importance. The open acknowledgement of historical reality not only would overturn the perception on the construction of European democratic structures, but would raise inconvenient questions about the current, present day evolution of many events.
The subject came into public space after 40 years of severe concealment. In November 1990 the European Parliament held a session where lawmakers from several countries voiced their outrage at the disclosures brought to light by an investigation in Italy: the entire Europe was studded with a network of armies so-called Stay-Behind (meaning secretly), created and backed by the US in collaboration with the intelligence services of those countries, under the NATO umbrella. The extremely serious fact was that these armies had the purpose of creating and deliberately keeping tension in the countries where they operated, and the most used methods were terrorist attacks. In Italy, several such terrorist attacks had already been plainly exposed as being made by a branch of the network called Gladio.
The stay-behind network was created shortly after the end of the Second World War. The apparent goal was the development of a paramilitary structure to counter a possible invasion of the Soviets in Europe. Since the invasion of the Russians did not take place, the effective goal of the network had become the blockade, even violent, of any communism-friendly orientation in Western Europe. The method used was that of attacks under false flag, that is, terrorist attacks were carried out by the secret armies and manipulatively blamed the left movements. The population became revolted and they were thus easily instigated to oppose the upsurge of local communist parties.
The disclosures generated a huge international scandal and therefore the European Parliament adopted a Resolution whereby it officially acknowledged the existence of the stay-behind network urging Member States to immediately dissolve these structures.
The transcript of the November 22 European Parliament hearing gives us a suggestive picture of the scale of the scandal. Here is a fragment from the speech of Greek MEP VassilisEphremidis:
Mr. President, the Gladio system has existed for four decades under various names by operating clandestinely, and we have the right to give this the destabilization, the provocations and terrorism that occurred in our countries for these four decades, and I would say that, actively or passively, it was involved.
(…) The fact that it was set up by the CIA and NATO, while claiming to defend democracy, [shows that] in reality it was designed to undermine it by using it for their own nefarious purposes.1
Similarly, Vandemeulebroucke Dutch MEP said “I would like to protest most strongly against the fact that the American military, whether through SHAPE, NATO or the CIA, think they can interfere in what is our democratic right.”2
Due to its exceptional importance, the European Parliament’s Gladio Resolution,3 adopted on 22 November 1990, deserves to be read carefully, in its entirety. Firstly, there were summarized the main ascertainments of the Gladio phenomenon:
The European Parliament,
- Having regard to the revelation by several European governments of the existence for 40 years of a clandestine parallel intelligence and armed operations organization in several Member States of the Community;
- Whereas for over 40 years this organization has escaped all democratic controls and has been run by the secret services of the states concerned in collaboration with NATO;
- Fearing the danger that such clandestine networks may have interfered illegally in the internal political affairs of Member States or may still do so;
- Whereas in certain Member States military secret services (or uncontrolled branches thereof) were involved in serious cases of terrorism and crime as evidenced by various judicial inquiries;
- Whereas these organizations operated and continue to operate completely outside the law since they are not subject to any parliamentary control and frequently those holding the highest government and constitutional posts are kept in the dark as to these matters;
- Whereas the various ‘GLADIO’ organisations have at their disposal independent arsenals and military resources which give them an unknown strike potential, thereby jeopardising the democratic structures of the countries in which they are operating or have been operating;
- Greatly concerned at the existence of decision-making and operational bodies which are not subject to any form of democratic control and are of a completely clandestine nature at a time when greater Community cooperation in the field of security is a constant subject of discussion.
Then followed the measures addressed to the EU Council of Ministers, and also officially notified to NATO and the United States:
- Condemns the clandestine creation of manipulative and operational networks and calls for a full investigation into the nature, structure, aims and all other aspects of these clandestine organizations or any splinter groups, their use for illegal interference in the internal political affairs of the countries concerned, the problem of terrorism in Europe and the possible collusion of the secret services of Member States or third countries;
- Protests vigorously at the assumption by certain US military personnel at SHAPE and in NATO of the right to encourage the establishment in Europe of a clandestine intelligence and operation network;
- Calls on the governments of the Member States to dismantle all clandestine military and paramilitary networks;
- Calls on the judiciaries of the countries in which the presence of such military organisations has been ascertained to fully their composition and modus operandi and to clarify any action they may have taken to destabilize the democratic structures of the Member States;
- Requests all the Member States to take the necessary measures, if necessary by establishing parliamentary committees of inquiry, to draw up a complete list of organisations active in this field, and at the same time to monitor their links with the respective state intelligence services and their links, if any, with terrorist action groups and/or other illegal practices;
- Calls on the Council of Ministers to provide full information on the activities of these secret intelligence and operational services;
- Instructs its Political Affairs Committee to consider holding a hearing in order to clarify the role and impact of the ‘GLADIO’ organisation and any similar bodies;
- Instructs its President to forward this resolution to the Commission, the Council, the Secretary-General of NATO, the governments of the Member States, and the United States Government.
Even though the subject of terrorist attacks carried out for political purposes by NATO secret armies, controlled and commanded by the US administration, is still controversial, the investigations fully revealed that these secret armies existed. It has to be emphasized that the existence itself, in different countries, of this foreign-controlled network, hidden even from the governments of the respective countries, has illegal, anti-democratic and anti-constitutional character, which flagrantly violates all international treaties and conventions.
Terrorist Attacks by Stay-Behind Networks
It is estimated that during the Cold War, NATO secret networks, coordinated by the CIA, committed hundreds of terrorist attacks across Western Europe. A very carefully documented material of these attacks was made public by the Center for Security Studies Parallel History Project4 of the ETH University in Zürich, which collaborated with the National Security Archive of George Washington University in the USA. Here are some of the most serious of these attacks, listed in chronological order:
In 1960, in Turkey, the Stay-Behind network, in co-operation with the Turkish army, organized a coup d’état, during which Prime Minister Adnan Menderes was killed;
In 1961, the French branch of the network organized a coup d’état against the Algerian government with the support of the CIA. Eventually the coup failed;
In 1967, Stay-Behind organized a coup in Greece and imposed a military dictatorship;
In 1969, the Italian branch of the network called Gladio organized an attack on Milan (Piazza Fontana), whereby 16 civilians were killed and other 80 were injured. The blame was thrown on communists. Former chief of the Italian Counter-Intelligence Service later revealed that the massacre was orchestrated on the CIA’s order;
In 1971, in Turkey, after another coup d’état, the Stay-Behind army engaged in acts of “internal terror” and killed hundreds of civilians;
In 1972, a terrorist attack in Italy, at Peteano, later proved to be carried out by Gladio;
In 1974 another terrorist attack took place in Italy during a demonstration in Brescia. The attack resulted in eight dead and 102 injured. On the same day, another attack in Rome killed 12 people and injured 48 on Italicus Express train;
In 1977, in Turkey, another assault targeted a demonstration of 500,000 people in Istanbul. The attackers opened the fire on stage speakers. 38 people were killed and hundreds of others were injured.
In 1977 in Spain, Stay-Behind operated an attack in Madrid, near Atocha station, with four dead and four wounded;
In 1978, Italian Prime Minister Aldo Moro was assassinated as he got ready to form a coalition government between the Christian Democratic Party and the Italian Communist Party;
Another bomb attack in Italy, extremely serious, in the waiting room of the central station in Bologna, killed 85 people and seriously injured other 200 in the morning of August 2, 1980;
Also in 1980, in Turkey, Stay-Behind’s local chief, General KenanEvren, organized a coup d’état and took over power;
In October 1980, a terrorist attack took place in Munich, Germany, during a festival. Known as the Oktoberfest Bombing, the attack is considered the worst act of terrorism in West Germany after WW2. 13 people were killed and 213 injured. A year later, near the German village of Uelzen in the Lüneburg district, a large arsenal belonging to Stay-Behind was discovered. It seems that this was the source of the bombs they used in order to attack Munich;
In 1985, in Belgium, the network organized terrorist attacks in supermarkets, randomly killing 28 people. The investigations identified terrorist connections with the Belgian Stay-Behind group encoded as SDRA8, the Belgian Gendarmerie (SDRA6), the Belgian Westland New Post group and with the Pentagon Secret Service, the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA).
In 1990, former head of the Stay-Behind network in Switzerland, Colonel Herbert Alboth, wrote to the US Department of Defense that he would reveal “the whole truth.” Soon after, he was found in his house deadly stabbed with his own bayonet.
(To be continued)